Effective outdoor perimeter security entails multiple layers of defense: fences, lighting, cameras, guards, and more security measures working in tandem to deter, detect, delay, and defend against intruders.
Let’s walk through each of those defense measures in turn, and then combine them into a portrait of a layered outdoor perimeter security system.
Fences, Walls, and Bollards
Fences deter and delay intruders. A determined criminal can cut through or climb over a fence, but they risk detection and injury in the process. It takes more effort to go through a wall; it can be done, but it’s usually easier to break through a door, window, or gate.
But even a wall can be broken – say, for instance, if someone drives a truck through it. You can prevent this with physical barriers that block any vehicle on its way to the building. You’ve surely seen bollards: thick, short structures that a pedestrian can easily pass through, but which would stop most vehicles in their tracks.
Don’t underestimate the right signs as a tool for deterrence. A ‘no trespassing’ sign will keep passerbys off the premises, and cuts through any excuses an intruder might make if caught. Signs can also highlight other security measures, such as cameras, making your entire security system more effective at deterring intrusions.
While a committed intruder can walk right past a sign, it at least keeps out pedestrians and unwitting trespassers. The less you have to worry about random people stumbling into a secure area, the more you can focus on anyone who might be actively trying to break in.
Lighting is an essential tool to deter and detect intruders. An attacker will be much less likely to attempt crossing blinding floodlights, even if they don’t see anyone immediately at hand. The cover of darkness is a powerful ally to anyone trying to sneak in. If you want to secure your perimeter, you can’t let people slip through the dark.
That said, keeping high-wattage floodlights on throughout the night can get expensive. One option to keep costs down is to deploy motion sensors, which then trigger floodlights if they detect a potential intruder.
Cameras are another useful tool to deter and detect intruders. The mere presence of a camera makes people less likely to try anything fishy: who wants to get caught on tape trespassing? To get the full deterrence value out of your cameras, make sure they’re plain to see. You may even want to put up signs making it clear the area is under surveillance.
A network of cameras also enables one or two guys in a control room to cover an area that would otherwise require a dozen guards on patrol. Just watch out for blind spots and make sure you have adequate lighting: a camera that can’t see (or be seen) is not worth much as a security measure.
Access Points & Gates
Access points such as gates allow access to a secure area, but they can also be points of vulnerability in perimeter defenses. With no other defense measures in place, it’s easier to slip through a gate than to cut through a fence – so make sure you cover gates and access points with additional security measures. Which brings us to our next topic: guards.
Guards are one of the most effective perimeter security measures available. Their mere presence is a strong deterrence, and if worse comes to worse, it will often be your guards who defend against any attacker that does get through defenses.
Guards are often pivotal to allowing access into a secure perimeter. It’s often on them to check identification and determine who can and can’t enter. You can read more in our full article on physical access control.
Motion Detection Systems
Motion detection can be a valuable support to your perimeter security system. When the system detects motion, it can turn on lights or alarms to alert the facility’s guards. A security guard watching an array of cameras should immediately notice when a dark screen suddenly lights up.
Motion detection also supports deterrence. If an intruder triggers an alarm or gets lit up by a floodlight, they’ll worry they’ve been spotted. For many intruders, that’s reason enough to flee the scene.
Layered Perimeter Security
Let’s walk through an example that puts together all of the above into a layered perimeter security system. Picture a secure outdoor perimeter, surrounded on all sides by fences. The outside of the fence might be dark, but a motion detection system activates floodlights if anyone approaches.
The fence is lined with signs that enhance deterrence by making it perfectly clear that the facility is monitored by cameras and that entering the facility would be trespassing.
This facility has one access gate, worked by two guards at all times. The gatehouse includes video feeds from the cameras monitoring the entire facility. With two more guards on patrol, you’ve got a very secure perimeter, with several types of security measures working in tandem to deter, detect, delay, and defend against intrusion attempts.